اقتصاد روز


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(floating exchange rate (Fear of floating

A free floating exchange rate increases foreign exchange volatility. This may cause serious problems, especially in emerging economies. These economies have a financial sector with one or more of following conditions

    • high liability dollarization
    • financial fragility
    • strong balance sheet effects

When liabilities are denominated in foreign currencies while assets are in the local currency, unexpected depreciations of the exchange rate deteriorate bank and corporate balance sheets and threaten the stability of the domestic financial system

For this reason emerging countries appear to face greater fear of floating, as they have much smaller variations of the nominal exchange rate, yet face bigger shocks and interest rate and reserve movements (Calvo and Reinhart, 2002). This is the consequence of frequent free floating countries' reaction to exchange rate movements with monetary policy and/or intervention in the foreign exchange market

According to data from Levy-Yeyati and Sturzenegger (2004), the number of countries that present fear of floating increased significantly during the nineties


نوشته شده توسط افسانه جباري در شنبه 21 دی1387

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Floating exchange rate

A floating exchange rate or a flexible exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate according to the foreign exchange market. A currency that uses a floating exchange rate is known as a floating currency. The opposite of a floating exchange rate is a fixed exchange rate

Many economists think that, in most circumstances, floating exchange rates are preferable to fixed exchange rates. They allow the dampening of shocks vb and foreign business cycles. However, in certain situations, fixed exchange rates may be preferable for their greater stability and certainty. This may not necessarily be true, considering the results of countries that attempt to keep the prices of their currency "strong" or "high" relative to others, such as the UK or the Southeast Asia countries before the Asian currency crisis

In cases of extreme appreciation or depreciation, a central bank will normally intervene to stabilize the currency. Thus, the exchange rate regimes of floating currencies may more technically be known as a managed float. A central bank might, for instance, allow a currency price to float freely between an upper and lower bound, a price "ceiling" and "floor". Management by the central bank may take the form of buying or selling large lots in order to provide price support or resistance, or, in the case of some national currencies, there may be legal penalties for trading outside these bounds

نوشته شده توسط افسانه جباري در یکشنبه 15 دی1387

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(fixed exchange rate ( Criticisms
The main criticism of a fixed exchange rate is that flexible exchange rates serve to automatically adjust the balance of trade. When a trade deficit occurs, there will be increased demand for the foreign (rather than domestic) currency which will push up the price of the foreign currency in terms of the domestic currency. That in turn makes the price of foreign goods less attractive to the domestic market and thus pushes down the trade deficit. Under fixed exchange rates, this automatic re-balancing does not occur

نوشته شده توسط افسانه جباري در دوشنبه 9 دی1387

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(fixed exchange rate ( Maintaining a fixed exchange rate
Typically, a government wanting to maintain a fixed exchange rate does so by either buying or selling its own currency on the open market. This is one reason governments maintain reserves of foreign currencies. If the exchange rate drifts too far below the desired rate, the government buys its own currency off the market using its reserves. This places greater demand on the market and pushes up the price of the currency. If the exchange rate drifts too far above the desired rate, the opposite measures are taken

Another, less used means of maintaining a fixed exchange rate is by simply making it illegal to trade currency at any other rate. This is difficult to enforce and often leads to a black market in foreign currency. Nonetheless, some countries are highly successful at using this method due to government monopolies over all money conversion. This is the method employed by the Chinese government to maintain a currency peg or tightly banded float against the US dollar.[citation needed] Throughout the 1990s, China was highly successful at maintaining a currency peg using a government monopoly over all currency conversion between the Yen and other currencies


نوشته شده توسط افسانه جباري در شنبه 7 دی1387

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Fixed exchange rate
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currency's value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.

A fixed exchange rate is usually used to stabilize the value of a currency, vis-a-vis the currency it is pegged to. This facilitates trade and investments between the two countries, and is especially useful for small economies where external trade forms a large part of their GDP.

It is also used as a means to control inflation. However, as the reference value rises and falls, so does the currency pegged to it. In addition, a fixed exchange rate prevents a government from using domestic monetary policy in order to achieve macroeconomic stability

Fixing the value of the domestic currency relative to that of a low-inflation country is one approach central banks have used to pursue price stability. The advantage of an exchange rate target is its clarity, which makes it easily understood by the public. In practice, it obliges the central bank to limit money creation to levels comparable to those of the country to whose currency it is pegged. When credibly maintained, an exchange rate target can lower inflation expectations to the level prevailing in the anchor country. Experiences with fixed exchange rates, however, point to a number of drawbacks.



نوشته شده توسط افسانه جباري در دوشنبه 2 دی1387

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